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Calcium, Vitamin D & Vitamin K2

Vitamin K1: Phytonadione
Vitamin K2: Menaquinone (various forms, MK-n)

Randomised studies suggest that calcium supplements without coadministered vitamin D are associated with an increased incidence of myocardial infarction. [1]

One study indicates that intake of ordinary doses of vitamin D supplements seems to be associated with decreases in total mortality rates and the study's summary relative risk did not change according to the addition of calcium supplements in the intervention.[2]

After extensive databases had been constructed for the vitamin K1- and vitamin K2-content of various food items, population-based studies were initiated to correlate vitamin K intake with cardiovascular disease. In a first survey, Geleijnse et al. demonstrated that vitamin K2 intake is inversely correlated with cardiovascular disease and mortality. Remarkably, no association was found with the intake of vitamin K1.[3][4]

Long-chain menaquinones (MK-7 and higher) turned out to have the most beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease, with a mortality risk reduction of 9% for each 10 µg/day of extra intake.[4]

MK-7 induced more complete carboxylation of osteocalcin, and hematologists should be aware that preparations supplying 50 ug/d or more of MK-7 may interfere with oral anticoagulant treatment in a clinically relevant way.[5]

Note; There are two main types of blood thinners: 1) Anticoagulants, such as heparin or warfarin (also called Coumadin), work on chemical reactions in your body to lengthen the time it takes to form a blood clot. 2) Antiplatelet drugs, such as aspirin, prevent blood cells called platelets from clumping together to form a clot.[6]

According do Dr. Stephen Sinatra, vitamin K2 can be administered with aspirin but not with Coumadin as it is a vitamin K2 antagonist. [7]


  • Calcium should be combined with Vitamin D and Vitamin K2 (especially MK-7) to prevent CHD
  • Care should be taken when dosing Vitamin K2 MK-7 when combined with an anticoagulant
    • It seems possible to administer Vitamin K2 MK-7 together with baby aspirin according to Dr. Stephen Sinatra


  1. Effect of calcium supplements on risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular events: meta-analysis, BMJ 2010;341:c3691 doi:10.1136/bmj.c3691,
  2. Vitamin D Supplementation and Total Mortality - A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials, Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(16):1730-1737. doi:10.1001/archinte.167.16.1730,
  3. Vitamin K: the effect on health beyond coagulation – an overview, Cees Vermeer,
  4. 4.0 4.1 Dietary Intake of Menaquinone (Vitamin K2) Is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: The Rotterdam Study,
  5. Vitamin K–containing dietary supplements: comparison of synthetic vitamin K1 and natto-derived menaquinone-7,
  6. Blood Thinners - Also called: Anti-platelet drugs, Anticoagulants,
  7. Supplements for Heart Health: What the Latest Science Means for You, Dr. Stephen Sinatra |